Wednesday, December 4, 2019
This paper evaluates caring teachers and their impacts on students and the learning experience. This paper presents a study conducted by the Center of Adolescent Studies that looked at caring teachers by interviewing sixth, seventh and eighth grade students. The author reports students defined a caring teacher as a teacher who listens and helps them with personal problems and as a teacher who helps with homework, gives students individual attention, sets goals for students and talks to students about their behavior. The paper concludes that students learn better with a caring teacher and develop skills that allow them to continue to learn effectively once they are out of the classroom. Table of Contents Impact of a Caring Teacher Teaching Styles Used by Caring Teachers Attitudes of Teachers Success of Students The focus is on how the student can be helped. This is also important as it shows how the student is able to avoid ridicule and embarrassment. We will write a custom essay sample on Caring Teachers: Impact on Students or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This would be important in maintaining a students interest and self-esteem. The fourth response shows us how caring teachers are attentive to their students, which is important in making the student feel they are supported and noticed. The fourth response shows how a caring teacher also provides encouragement and praises students for good work. The final response shows how being caring actually creates a better environment where learning is interesting to students.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Economics and Figure Paper |1. |The total product curve: | |B) |will become flatter as output increases, if there are diminishing returns to the variable input. | Use the following to answer questions 2-3: [pic] |2. |(Table: Total Product and Marginal Product) The marginal product of the second worker is: | |C) |20. | |3. |(Table: Total Product and Marginal Product) The average product of the fourth worker is ________ units. | |B) |22. | Use the following to answer question 4: Figure: Total Product [pic] |4. |(Figure: Total Product) As units of labor are hired between quantities L1 and L2, ________ is ________ and ________ is ________. | |A) |total product; rising; marginal product; positive | [pic] |1. |(Table: Output and Costs) Using the information in the table, when quantity equals three, average total cost equals: | |D) |17. | |2. Cindy operates Birds-R-Us, a small store manufacturing and selling 100 bird feeders per month. Cindys monthly total fixed costs| | |are $500, and her monthly total variable c osts are $2,500. If for some reason Cindys fixed cost fell to $400, then her: | |B) |average total costs would decrease. | |3. |Rebecca knows that Becca Furnitures marginal cost curve is above the average total cost curve. This means Becca Furnitures | | |average total cost curve: | |A) |must be rising. Use the following to answer question 4: Figure: Short-Run Costs II [pic] |4. |(Figure: Short-Run Costs II) At six units of output, average total cost is approximately: | |C) |$170. | Use the following to answer questions 1-2: Figure: Cost Curves [pic] |1. |(Figure: Cost Curves) If a firm faced a long-run average total cost curve as shown in the figure, and it expected to produce | | |100,000 units of the good in the long run, the firm should build the plant associated with: | |B) |ATC2. |2. |(Figure: Cost Curves) If a firm currently was producing at point C on the ATC2 in the figure but anticipates increasing output | | |to 225,000 units in the long run, the firm will build a _______ _ plant and experience ________. | |D) |larger; diseconomies of scale | |3. |A manufacturing company that benefits from lower costs per unit as it grows is an example of a firm experiencing: | |A) |increasing returns to scale. |1. |A decrease in demand and a decrease in supply will lead to a(n) ________ in equilibrium quantity and a(n) ________ in | | |equilibrium price. | |A) |decrease; indeterminate change | Figure: Average Total Cost Curve [pic] |10. |(Figure: Average Total Cost Curve) In the figure, the total cost of producing five pairs of boots is approximately: | |A) |$408. | Figure: A Perfectly Competitive Firm in the Short Run pic] |17. |(Figure: A Perfectly Competitive Firm in the Short Run) The firm will shut down in the short run if the price falls below: | |D) |P. | |18. |(Figure: A Perfectly Competitive Firm in the Short Run) The firms total revenue from the sale of its most profitable level of | | |output is: | |A) |0GLD. | Use the following to answer question 20: [ pic] |20. (Table: Marginal Benefit, Cost, and Consumer Surplus) The table shows six consumers willingness to pay (his or her individual | | |marginal benefit) for one iTunes download of a Jack Johnson song. If the marginal social cost is constant at $0, then the | | |efficient price is ________ and consumer surplus would be ________. | |A) |$0; $37 | Figure: The Restaurant Market [pic] |25. |(Figure: The Restaurant Market) The figure shows curves facing a typical restaurant in a community. Assume that many firms, | | |differentiated products, and easy entry and easy exit characterize the market. If the restaurant shown here is typical of others| | |in the community, then in the long run, we would expect to observe: | |B) |new restaurants entering the market. | |26. |The kinked demand curve model assumes that: | |B) |rivals will follow a price decrease but not a price increase. | Next exam 11/16 |1. Suppose that the market for haircuts in a community is perfectly competitive and that the market is initially in long-run | | |equilibrium. Subsequently, an increase in population increases the demand for haircuts. In the short run, we expect that the | | |market price will ________ and the output of a typical firm will ________. | |A) |rise; rise | Use the following to answer questions 2: Figure: Profit Maximizing [pic] |2. |(Figure: Profit Maximizing) The figure shows cost curves for a firm operating in a perfectly competitive market. We will write a custom essay sample on Economics and Figure specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Economics and Figure specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Economics and Figure specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer If the market | | |price is P4, the firm will produce quantity ________ and ________ in the short run. | |B) |q3; make a profit | |3. |In the perfectly competitive guidebook industry, the market price is $35. A firm is currently producing 10,000 guidebooks; | |(Figure: Profit Maximizing) The figure shows cost curves for a firm operating in a perfectly competitive market. If the market | | |average total cost is $38, marginal cost is $30, and average variable cost is $30. The firm should: | |price is P3, the firm will produce quantity ________ and ________ in the short run. | | | | | |C) | |produce more guidebooks, because the next guidebook produced increases profit by $5. | | | |4. |Consider the following data for a perfectly competitive firm: price is $9, output is 30 units, and average total cost is $7. The| | |firms profits are equal to: | |A) |$60. | |5. |A perfectly competitive firms marginal cost curve above the average variable cost curve is its: | |B) |short-run supply curve. Use the following to answer question 6: [pic] |6. |(Table: Variable Costs for Lots) During the winter, Alexa runs a snow-clearing service, and snow-clearing is a perfectly | | |competitive industry. Her only fixed cost is $1,000 for a tractor. Her variable costs per cleared lot, shown in the table, | | |include fuel and hot coffee. What is Alexas shut-down price in the short run? | |B) |$15 | |1. |The city bus system charges lower fares to senior citizens than to other passengers. Assuming that this pricing strategy | | |increases the profits of the bus system, we can conclude that senior citizens must have a ________ for bus service than other | | |passengers. | |C) |more elastic demand | |2. |Kaile Cakes is currently producing 10 cakes per day. The marginal cost of the tenth cake is $24, and average total cost of 10 | | |cakes is $6. The average total cost of 9 cakes is: | |A) |$4. | |3. |Many furniture stores run Ã¢â¬Å"Going out of BusinessÃ¢â¬ sales but never go out of business. In order for the shut-down decision to be | | |the appropriate one, the price of furniture must be ________ than the ________ average variable cost. | |B) |lower; minimum | Use the following to answer question 4: Figure and Table: Variable, Fixed, and Total Costs [pic] [pic] |4. |(Figure and Table: Variable, Fixed, and Total Costs) In the figure, the marginal cost of increasing production from 19 to 36 | | |bushels of wheat is: | |B) |$11. 76. | Use the following to answer question 5: [pic] |5. |(Table: Demand for Lennys Coffee) Lennys Cafe is the only source of coffee for hundreds of miles in any direction. The demand | | |schedule for Lennys coffee is given by the table. If Lennys marginal cost of selling coffee is a constant $2, his | | |profit-maximizing level of output is ________ cups at a price of ________ per cup. | |A) |four; $6 | |6. |At 76 units of labor, a firm finds that average product of labor equals 39. 6 and marginal product of labor equals 42. 9. We can | | |conclude that the average product curve at 76 units of labor is: | |A) |upward-sloping. | 7. |The slope of a long-run average total cost curve exhibiting diseconomies of scale is: | |C) |positive. | Use the following to answer question 8: Figure: Revenues, Costs, and Profits III [pic] |8. |(Figure: Revenues, Costs, and Profits III) In the figure, if the market price is $8, the profit-maximizing quantity of output | | |is: | |A) |0. | |9. One government policy for dealing with a natural monopoly is to: | |B) |impose a price ceiling to eliminate any economic profit. | Figure: Revenues, Costs, and Profits [pic] |10. |(Figure: Revenues, Costs, and Profits) At the profit-maximizing qu antity of output in the figure, total revenue is $________, | | |total cost is $________, and profit is $________. | |B) |90; 70; 20 | |1. |A farm can produce 1,000 bushels of wheat per year with two workers and 1,300 bushels of wheat per year with four workers. The | | |marginal product of the fourth worker is: | |D) |150 bushels. | |2. |Suppose that the market for candy canes operates under conditions of perfect competition, that it is initially in long-run | | |equilibrium, and that the price of each candy cane is $0. 10. Now suppose that the price of sugar rises, increasing the marginal | | |and average total cost of producing candy canes by $0. 05; there are no other changes in production costs. Based on the | | |information given, we can conclude that in the long run we will observe: | |A) |firms leaving the industry. | Use the following to answer question 3: [pic] |3. |(Table: Production of Cabinets) The table shows how many cabinets your firm can make with a variable quantity of labor hired. | | |After which worker does the firm begin to experience diminishing returns to labor? | |B) |second | Use the following to answer question 8: [pic] |8. (Table: Costs of Producing Bagels) Average total cost reaches its minimum value for the ________ bagel. | |C) |fourth | Use the following to answer question 13: [pic] |13. |(Table: Soybean Cost) The costs of production of a perfectly competitive soybean farmer are given in the table. If the market | | |price of a bushel of soybeans is $15, how many bushels will the farmer produce to maximize short-run profit? | |B) |5 | Use the following to answer question 14: Figure: A Firms Cost Curves [pic] |14. |(Figure: A Firms Cost Curves) The curve labeled V represents the firms ________ curve. | |C) |marginal cost | Use the following to answer question 17: Figure: Profit Maximizing [pic] |17. |(Figure: Profit Maximizing) The figure shows cost curves for a firm operating in a perfectly competitive market. Which of the | | |following statements is true? | |B) |AFC is represented in this figure by the vertical distance between Curve N and Curve O at any level of output. |
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Should You Take the ACT With or Without Writing SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Because ACT Writing is optional, many students are unsure whether they need to add the extra 40 minutes to the test. However, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a simple answer to whether you should take the ACT with writing or without writing: it depends on whether the colleges you want to apply to require a writing score. This guide will talk you through how the ACT writing got started, how to determine whether you should take the ACT with or without Writing, and some other considerations you may want to keep in mind. What Is ACT Writing? Since 2005, students have had the choice between two different versions of the ACT: the ACT and the ACT with Writing. The writing test is an optional 40-minute essay task that students can elect to take at the end of the multiple choice test. ACT, Inc. added the Writing section in response to the 2005 SAT overhaul, whichaddeda Writing section that included both grammar multiple-choice questions and an essay. The addition of thewriting task to the ACT was meant to keep the two tests equivalent and easily comparable. Nonetheless, the SAT's essay was required and the ACT's was optional. This discrepancy between how the two tests incorporated their essay portions caused a fair amount of confusion for students and colleges. Ultimately, each college set its own policy about the two testsÃ¢â¬â¢ Writing sections: some simply ignored SAT Writing scores and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t require the ACT Writing, others considered SAT Writing but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t require Writing with the ACT, and a third group considered SAT Writing and required the Writing with the ACT. To complicate the situation further, the SAT's essay is nowa separate, optional sectionlike the ACTÃ¢â¬â¢s. Nonetheless, the basic facts remain the same: whether you take the ACT with or without Writing depends on whether the schools' you're applying to require it. The Key Consideration: WhichColleges Require ACT Writing? Roughly 300 colleges require or recommend that applicants take the ACT with Writing. In general, more selective schools expect you to submita Writing score, while less selective ones don't. However,there are plenty of exceptions: University of Chicago doesn't require the Writing section but Florida International University does. Otherschools don't require the ACT with Writing but do recommend it. Given the range of policies, you'll need to check the requirements for every school you're applying to. To find this information, you can check our full list of schools that require the ACT Writing sectionor ACT, Inc.'s (semi-up-to-date) database. You can alsolook up schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ most up-to-date standardized testing policies on their individual websites: just search for "[school name] ACT writing requirement" online. Keep in mind that these policies are especiallysubject to change right now, since some schools that previously required the ACT with Writing are dropping the requirement now that both the SAT and ACT essays are optional. Examples of schoolsmaking this change include Columbia University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and University of Virginia. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not sure which schools you want to apply to, I would recommend taking the test with the Writing section, just to be safe. You unfortunately canÃ¢â¬â¢t take theWriting test alone, so if you later decide to apply to a school that does require the Writing, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to retake the entire test. Another minor note: if youÃ¢â¬â¢re taking the ACT through your school, you may or may not take it with Writing, depending on which state you live in. If your state doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t administer ACT Plus Writing and you are applying to schools that require it, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to retake the whole test with Writing. Florida State University requires applicants to submit the ACT with Writing. (Jackson Myers/Flickr) A Few Other Things to Keep in Mind Although whether the schools you're interested in require you to submit the ACT with Writing should be the primary factor in your decision about which version of the test to take, there are a couple of other pros and cons worth taking into account. A Good ACT Writing Score Can Boost Your Chances of Admission- Slightly Even if a school doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t require the test, a high score on the ACT Writing may give your application a slight boost, since it serves as an indication of strongwriting and analysis abilities. This is basically just a way of providing some extra information and will generally have only a minor benefit (similar to submitting both ACT and SAT scores). The main circumstancesin which it would be worth submittingthe ACT with Writing even if it isn't required would be if you're applying to especially competitive schools orschools that recommend the Writing section. Also be aware that some schools simply wonÃ¢â¬â¢t look at your Writing score, even if you send it. Make sure to read each schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s policy carefully so you know what's worth spending time on. Costs of Taking the ACT With Writing So far I've focused on reasons you would want to take the Writing section, but there are also some costs associated with doing so. Registration Fee There is an extra fee ($16.50) to take the writing portion of the test. Extra Study Time If you take the Writing section you will need to study for the Writing section, which means investing extra hours into ACT prep. However, ACT Writing is relatively straightforward once you know how it works, so even just a few hours of prep (say, reading through the rubric and some examples and trying a practice essay) can be very helpful. Both of these costs are relatively minor and neither should prevent you from applying to schools that do require ACT Writing. If the added fee is a serious issue, you mayqualify for a fee waiver, which covers the writing section as well as the general registration. (Tori Rector/Flickr) Final Verdict Let's go through each possible situation you might be in and whether you should takethe ACT Writing. If even one of the schools you want to apply to requires the ACT with Writing... ...take the ACT with Writing. You won't be able to get in without it, so it's worth the slightly higher fee and extra time commitment. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying only to schools that wonÃ¢â¬â¢t consider ACT Writing scores... ...skip taking the ACT with Writing. If schools won't even consider it, it's just a waste of time and money. If you're looking at schools thatdon't requireACT Writingand arenÃ¢â¬â¢t very competitive... ...only take the ACT with Writing if your application showsmajor weaknesses in English language skills. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to more competitiveschools or schools that recommendACT Writing... ...take the ACT with Writing, unless thecost and stress profoundly outweigh the potential benefit of more information for colleges. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re not sure where you want to apply... ...take the ACT with Writing. It will save you from having to retake the test if you realize you need to submit ACT Writing scores later. No matter what your situation, make sure to double check whether the schools youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to require you to submit ACT Writing scores. There's nothing worse than thinking you're completely finished with standardized testing, only to realize that you have to take the test all over again. What's Next? Just realized you need to take ACT Writing? Check out our complete guide to the new Enhanced Writing test and tips on how to get a 12 on the essay. If you're more focused on other sections of the test, check out our ultimate prep guides for ACT Reading, English, and Science. Want to improve your ACT score by 4+ points? Download our free guide to the top 5 strategies you need in your prep to improve your ACT score dramatically.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
How did music influence dictator and their politics - Essay Example The interesting thing about all the three is that they all hated jazz music. Jazz, being based on improvisation, was for them a synonym of freedom, which is not what was needed for an authoritarian regime. As a result, all the three dictators prohibited jazz and other western music in their countries. The favorite composers of Hitler were Ludwig van Beethoven, Richard Wagner, and Anton Bruckner. Their powerful, heroic, and especially marshal pieces were inspiring the dictator and, finally, he promoted the three composers as examples of great artists of the Nazi Germany. As a result, it came out that Hitler was supporting the German musical tradition, but suppressed creativity Ã¢â¬â everything was to be close to the set standards. Situation in the Soviet Union was quite similar. However, the emphasis of Stalin was not on classical music, but on Ã¢â¬ËsovietÃ¢â¬â¢ music instead. Composers and song writers were to write only Ã¢â¬Ëpolitically correctÃ¢â¬â¢ compositions that supported the ideology of the USSR. Most of those willing to create freely did not survive the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Stratigic management - Essay Example The following analytical tools namely: SWOT analysis, PESTEL analysis as well as PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces model analysis will be used in this case. The essay starts by outlining a brief historical background of the organisation in question for the sake of easier understanding then followed by an analysis of the above mentioned tools for scanning the environment in which the organisation operates. Environmental scanning plays a pivotal role in helping the marketing managers of an organisation to be in a better position to know the situation taking place on the ground for them to be able to gain a competitive advantage especially in view of the competition that may exist. Background Red Bull GmbH is widely acknowledged as the creator of the 'energy drink' category and has managed to maintain a close association with sports from the time it was launched in 1987. It is known for its sponsorship especially of extreme, alternative sports like white water kayaking, hand gliding, wind sur fing and snowboarding. Through the use of unconventional marketing strategies, Red Bull GmbH has come to be a force to reckon with in the energy drink market. SWOT analysis Ã¢â¬Å"A SWOT analysis is a useful instrument for helping managers to identify internal strengths and weaknesses of a business and external opportunities and threats facing it,Ã¢â¬ (Strydom J. p 31). Basically, SWOT stands for strengths (S), weaknesses (W) while on the other hand the external environmental factors are regarded as either opportunities (O) or threats (T). This analysis is very important to the managers as it allows them to focus on key strategic issues based on the notion that an effective strategy fully utilises the strengths and opportunities of a business and strives to minimise the weaknesses and threats. Potential internal strengths The major potential strengths for Red Bull include branding strategy. Red Bull was positioned as an energy drink that 'invigorated mind and body' and 'improved endurance levels' of the individual. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s slogan 'Red Bull gives you wiiings' also played a great role in reinforcing the positioning of the brand. This strategy played a very big strategic role in product development as well as strategic marketing. The branding strategy gave the company a major strength in that the product is completely different from the other energy drinks available in the market. This differentiation strategy has played a significant role in product development as well as marketing strategy as a result of the uniqueness of the product. The other major strength of the company in its product development and marketing strategy is that it uses unconventional marketing strategies. It targets the students and these are used to market the product. This is a major strength is the way the brand is positioned to the people whereby the aim is to attract consumers and appeal to their interests through its visibility. The packaging strategy has greatly enhanc ed the development of the product which is unique. Potential internal weaknesses The major notable potential weakness is that Red Bull did not rate very high with consumers on the taste dimension. It has been reported that the drink had a medicinal flavour though it smelt sweet. The taste was bitter and few people actually liked the taste of Red Bull. The company however did not focus on the aspect of taste in its promotions of the
Monday, November 18, 2019
Organisational Change And Development - Essay Example It has three stages or phases, viz. design, planning and implementation. As much as organizations differ in their internal leadership and cultural set up, the theoretical approaches to change also differ. For instance there are entrepreneurial, bureaucratic and autocratic organizations or/and leadership styles. They need equally diverse and effective theoretical approaches for change. Nowadays nature and the needs of the organizations are changing rapidly and organizational development is changing to meet the changing need of the organization. Thus typical organizational development activities include some forms such as team building, organizational assessment, carrier development, training, coaching, leadership development and change management. It is aim to improve health and effectiveness of the individual and organizational level. It was Kurt Lewin who first suggested a model based on force field. According to Lewin a typical business organization is in equilibrium at a given time. Two opposing forces act on the organization to bring it in to equilibrium. These forces were named by him as driving forces and restraining forces. The former consists of those elements within the organization seeking to change the direction of the organization constantly while the latter is opposed to such changes. When these two forces match each other's strength, the organization would not experience any disequilibrium. However when the driving forces become stronger change becomes inevitable. Thus the organization moves in to a new equilibrium. Thus Lewin came up with new ideas of group dynamics and action research based on organizational development process which is a growing field in many modern organizational approaches. It is often connected with organizational effectiveness.Another theoretical construct on organizational c hange is based on research carried out by Rosabeth Moss Kanter who argued that it is not necessary to have the backing of the management to bring about change. For instance according to this theory the organization requires authority power, vision, leadership, management and cultural change so that a better view of the organization's capabilities can be obtained. However Kanter suggested that irrespective of where a certain individual employee is in the organization there would be no exclusive power given to one of them to change the organization. These theories were followed by some other not so important variants. Analysis During the past two decades organizational change and development has become a very important aspect in the modern day management practice. Change is more appropriate when everything else has failed to ensure the continuous survival of the business (Clark, 1999). However change and development in itself might not be desirable when the degree of resistance to change becomes stronger because when resistance gathers momentum that in itself is an indicator of the existence of other solutions. If organizational change and development were focused on improving critical success factors related to financial management, Human Resource
Friday, November 15, 2019
A nature and sources of data Methodology Nature and sources of data The specific data required for this study were from primary and secondary sources. Secondary data were obtained from the Ibadan North Local Government Authority and Ibadan Waste Management Board. Analogue map of the study area was obtained from the Local Government headquarters. Land use map (1995), road map, elevation data, rail line data were made available from Ibadan Waste Management Board. A field visit was paid in order to determine the names of features on the analogue map in the attribute field of the digitised copy. GPS was used to capture points on ground for analysis. Hardware and Software The hardware used in this study included PC Pentium IV (RAM 250 MB, HD 2 GB), HP DeskJet 1220C color printer, HP Scanjet 2400, Logic Trace digitiser, Sony digital camera (8mp) and Garmin E trex 12 channels GPS receiver. The software used in preparing and analysis of the data included MS Excel, ArcView 3.3 with Network Analyst and Super decision for the AHP aspect. Digitising The base map was transformed into digital map for use in GIS by digitising using the platform of ArcView 3.3 GIS software. Digitising a map means converting an analogue map into a digital form by encoding the spatial coordinates of features on the map through the process of on-screen digitising. A digital map that is recognised by the computer in a GIS environment is the end-product of this exercise. Data analysis Five major GIS spatial operations were performed to achieve the set of objective for this project. These are, buffering, overlay, query, network analysis and nearest neighbourhood analysis Buffering It is a spatial analysis known as proximity analysis, generating zones of a given distance around a feature theme. It forms a polygon around a point, line or polygon theme by locating its boundaries at a specified distance. GIS can create buffer zones around selected features. The roads and rails were buffered at a radius of 100m (Javaheri 2006) while the streets were buffered at a radius of 30m. Overlay Overlay was performed to identify areas that meet all the set criteria and to show areas that do not meet the criteria. GIS can overlay different pieces of information. It helps in understanding the association between network analysis and specific geographic features. Ibadan North map and other data were overlaid to get possible sites. Query This command is used to answer the question of Ã¢â¬Ëwhat is and where is in GIS. The land use was queried to get the open space while the elevation was queried to get the suitable elevation. Network analysis Arc view Network Analyst is a powerful extension that provides network-based spatial analysis including routing, travel directions, closest facility, etc. This was made use of in this study to show the possible routes of connection from the transfer stations to the disposal site. Nearest Neighbour Analysis The nearest neighbour analysis helps to determine the nature of the distribution of the features which can be clustered or scattered. It is employed in this study to determine the pattern of skip distribution. If the index is less than 1, the pattern exhibits clustering and if greater than 1, the trend is toward dispersion. Cartographic model Ã¢â¬ËThe cartographic model is simply a graphical representation of data and procedures used in a study (Eastman 1995). It is a set of interacting ordered map operations that act on raw data as well as derive intermediate data to simulate a spatial decision making process (Tomlin, 1990). It shows all the layers of information starting with the base maps on the left and ending with the end product on the right. Its purposes are to help the analyst organise and structure the procedures that the analysis to be performed in a study will require and to identify the data needed to complete them. LU= Land-use The above cartographic model was constructed based on the following parameters: The land use maps was queried because site location must fall outside the land use areas so that settlement will not be polluted by the exhume/stench from the waste. The roads and rail were buffered at a distance of 100m and the streets were buffered at a distance of 30meters to create a good distance between them and the landfill site. The elevation was queried to get an elevation greater than or equal to 222meters so that it will not be located in an area that is too low because of water flow. Questionnaire Questionnaires were designed to seek public opinion as they include part of decision-making in a study such as this. 720 questionnaires were distributed among the various stakeholders, which include the public, planners and officials of Ibadan Municipal Government and Waste Management Board. In order to identify the criteria for siting, opinions from planners were required. Questionnaires were given out to 10 experts as part of public participation. Questionnaires were also distributed among the people living in the major areas where skips were to be allocated. These areas include, Oje market, Gbenla, Adeoyo, Danadaru, Premier Hotel, Jemebewon, Poly road, Cultural Centre, Bodija, Ikolaba, Oyo Secretariat. 60% of the questionnaires were distributed around the southern part as it was observed during field visit that most illegal dumpsites are around that area. Criteria for selection To arrive at the selection criteria for choosing a site for landfill, relevant literature and decision makers opinion were sought. Site must be close to at least a street with a buffer of 30m (Decision makers preference) Site must not be too far from a transfer station (Decision makers preference) Site must be 3km from residential areas, with the exception of areas with barriers (trees, hills, etc.) (Banar et al. 2007). There should be a minimum distance of 100m between site and roads (Decision makers preference, Javaheri et al. 2006) Site must be on a suitable soil. Site should be constructed in areas which do not have an important economic or ecological value (Lober 1995, Siddiqui et al. 1996). The AHP component Finally, in the second step, a decision hierarchical structure using the AHP was developed and implemented to rank the two suitable sites according to their suitability for landfill siting. The AHP can assist in identifying and weighting selection of criteria and expediting the process of decision making (Sener 2010). Preferences of decision makers can be included in a planning problem within an AHP. The problems then structured in a hierarchical form to allow for weighting of the preferences by pairwise comparisons (Phua and Minowa 2005). The AHP typically involves establishing a graphical representation of problem as a hierarchy, weighting the elements at each level of the hierarchy and calculating the weights (Phua and Minowa 2005). The AHP methodology compares criteria or alternatives with respect to a criterion, in a natural, pairwise mode. To achieve this, the AHP uses a fundamental scale of absolute numbers (Table 3.2) that has been tested in practice and validated by physical and decision problem experiments. It is perhaps the most widely used decision making approach today. The AHP is generally used to support other methodologies such as in deciding how many servers to employ in a queuing situation taking into account factors like costs, waiting times and human frustration. Several other applications include resource allocation, forecasting, etc. The Super Decisions software (Saaty 2003) was used in developing the AHP model. A Super Decisions model generally comprises clusters of elements rather than elements arranged in levels. Clusters contain node which represent the elements in them. For example, the criteria for siting a landfill may include proximity to transportation networks, proximity to waste collection centres, etc. These represent the nodes in the Ã¢â¬ËCriteria cluster. When a line joins a cluster with another cluster, it means the nodes in both clusters are connected together. The main aim of using the AHP is to assign weights to criteria and come out with the best alternative.